Alloy: A heterogeneous combination of materials that form a particular class of metal and represented by a standard numerical designation. The designation signifies the general classification of the metal, and the types and amount of its constituents. Alloying is done to improve the mechanical or physical properties of the metal.

Ampere-Hour Meter: Registers the amount of current used in a metal finishing tank over a specific period of time.

Anodizing - General: Anodizing is an electrochemical process for producing a thin oxide layer on the surface of various metals. It is used primarily for aluminum but is increasingly used on titanium and magnesium. These metals are used in the manufacturing of a wide variety of parts and products. The anodizing process uses electrical energy, which is passed through the part while it is submerged in a chemical solution in order to produce the surface finish.

Anodizing - Type II: This is a relatively thin oxide, produced at room temperature, used mostly for appearance benefits.  Dyes are often used to produce a color finish, for example; red, blue, green and yellow.  This type of finish is often called architectural, soft coat, or sulfuric anodizing. The process is generally performed in a dilute sulfuric acid solution at room temperature and results in a surface oxide thickness of less than 1 mil (0.001"). When sealed, this finish is highly corrosion resistant.

Anodizing - Type III: This is a thicker finish, produced at lower temperatures, and used mostly in parts that are subject to wear. This type of finish is also called hardcoat or hard anodizing. The process is generally performed in a dilute sulfuric acid solution at 32°F and results in a surface oxide thickness of greater than 1 mil (military specifications require an oxide of at least 2 mils.) This finish is very hard and highly wear resistant.

Anodizing by Current Density: Anodizing performed by controlling the amount of electrical current (amperage) that runs through the part and taking into account the amount of surface area of load in the anodizing bath. Either a manual or automated process may be used, producing superior consistency and reproducibility than anodizing by voltage.

Anodizing by Voltage: A simpler and less effective process, where the operator adjusts the amount of electrical voltage during the anodizing process without regard to the surface area of the load.

Anodizing Process: Any of many variations in the way in which anodizing is performed. Process generally involves changes in the chemical composition of the bath, conditions of the bath environment, variations in the way electrical energy is delivered to the parts, or all of the foregoing. Some processes are generic and some are proprietary, offered by companies under different names.

Anodizing Technology: A comprehensive program for anodizing which addresses all the issues involved in process variation, as well as all the necessary support services to ensure quality products and performance.

ASF: Acronym for Amps per Square Foot.

Bath: The chemical environment in which the anodizing of parts takes place. The usual chemistry is a dilute solution of sulfuric acid in water, and is contained in a large tank made of polypropylene or other inert material. Also know as Tank.

Benefits of Process Control:  Technical report that examines the benefits of using a process control computer for metal finishing parts.

Captive Shop: A metal finishing facility that is designed to meet the needs of a specific company and which is owned by that company. Firms that produce large volumes of parts that require processing, often have their own captive metal finishing facilities.

Chiller: A cooling system used to lower and maintain the temperature of an anodizing bath, especially in Type III anodizing.

Cleaner:  Chemistries used in a metal finishing line to clean the part prior to anodizing or plating.  Typically alkaline and acid based.

Corrosion Resistance:  The amount of time a part can withstand in a corrosive environment.  Typically tested in a salt spray chamber or accelerated salt spray chamber.

Current: The flow of electrons through a conductive material such as aluminum; usually measured in amperes (amps).

Current Density: The current applied to an anodizing load divided by the surface area of the load, generally expressed as amps per square foot (or per square decimeter). See ASF.

Deoxidizer:  Chemistries designed to effectively deoxidize and remove smut left by etching or cleaning.  Also removes copper after bright dipping.

Dye: A coloring material that can be applied to an anodized surface (usually Type II) for appearance. The anodized surface is porous and capable of accepting dye materials to produce various colors and effects.

ELV: Acronym for End of Life Vehicle directive.  The ELV is concerned with cars, vans and certain three-wheeled vehicles.  It limits the use of certain specific hazardous substances in the manufacturing of new vehicles and automotive components.

Etchant: Chemistries that remove subsurface impurities and produce smooth uniform finish and/or satin or matte finish.  Typically alkaline or acid based.

Executive Order (E0) 13148: Calls for a 50 percent reduction of hazardous chemicals.

ISO:  Acronym for International Standards Organizations.   ISO is a network of the national standards institutes of 157 countries.

Load: Metal finishing is usually performed on a number of parts at one time. The parts are mounted on a rack, and the total of all the parts in an operating process is called the load.

CHEMEON Additive (AA-200): The proprietary chemical used as an additive in the anodizing processing tank.  Using the AA-200 provides many benefits and is supported by documented technical reports. See Document Library.

CHEMEON TCP-HF:  An environmentally safe and superior alternative to hexavalent chromates.  CHEMEON TCP-HF meets OSHA regulations, RoHS, WEEE and ELVE directives.

CHEMEON Tech Center: The world's only dedicated anodizing research & development and training center, located in Minden, Nevada. The MTC includes state of art anodizing laboratory, classroom, and other facilities, supported by sophisticated equipment and highly qualified technical and professional staff.

MIL-DTL-5541F:  Specification for chemical conversion coatings on aluminum and aluminum alloys.

MS-2002 Manufacturer Process Control Spec:  A process control specification template that a manufacturer can use to implement process control throughout its supply chain, including machine and job shops.

MSDS: Acronym for Material Safety Data Sheet.  A MSDS is a document that contains information on the potential health effects of exposure to chemicals, or other potentially dangerous substances.

Pores: The microscopic openings in the anodized surface. The pore opening leads to a microscopic tube. Although porous, the anodized surface is very dense and hard. The number (or pore density) and size of the pores are dependent on the process conditions used.

QPL:  Acronym for Qualified Products List.  A list of products that, because of the length of time required for test and evaluation, are tested in advance of procurement to determine which suppliers comply with the specification requirements.

QS: Acronym for Quality System.  Standards recognizing a high level of quality in a process.

Oxide: Another term for the anodized layer. Oxide refers to the combination of the underlying aluminum alloy with oxygen, to form an aluminum oxide. The oxide is an integral part of the underlying metal, unlike paints and other coatings, which mechanically adhere to the surface.

Rack: The electrically conductive device used to hold the parts to be anodized as it is lowered into the bath. Racks are made in different sizes, types and shapes to hold the large variety of parts and products encountered in anodizing. They are usually aluminum or titanium.

Rectifier: The piece of equipment that provides electrical energy to the parts after first converting alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC). Rectifiers (also referred to as power supplies), are rated in terms of maximum output in Voltage, or the amount of electrical force required to move the current, and Amps, or the rate of energy flow (also referred to as current).

RoHS: Acronym for Restriction of Hazardous Substances.  European Union Directive on the restriction of certain hazardous substances in electrical or electronic equipment sold or used in the European Union.

Sealant: A method of closing the pores of an anodized surface to improve its surface characteristics, particularly corrosion resistance. Sealing involves hydrating, or plugging, the aluminum oxide formed by anodizing.

Specifications: Specifications (often referred to as "specs") are instructions for the way a process is to be performed. There are specifications for anodizing provided by government agencies, quality oriented private agencies, industries and industry groups such as the automotive and aerospace industries, and individual companies.

Standards: Standards are results that are expected or required at a minimum and the methods for testing those results for conformance to the Standard.

Strategy: Pertains to the specific detailed instructions on how a part will be processed by using the JobPro.   The operator may select a stored strategy or create a new one.  Information needed to create a strategy include; current density, current, voltage, ramp, amp hours, overall processing time, plateau time, ramp time, part number, customer name, customer ID.

Surface Characteristics: Anodizing is performed to achieve one or more objectives as to the characteristics of the surface. Among the more common characteristics are: hardness, abrasion (scratching) resistance, corrosion resistance, smoothness, lubricity, and consistency in thickness of the anodized layer. Different characteristics are obtained from process variations, resulting in differences in porosity, oxide thickness, and composition of the oxide. The degree to which different characteristics are achieved is measured by various test methods.

TDS: Acronym for Technical Data Sheet.  Information usually includes; applications, chemical characteristics and procedures.

Technical Summary: Technical information regarding a specific product.  Information usually includes; product overview and test data.

TECHSpecs:  A series of technical reports on CHEMEON products.

Throughput:  The amount of work or product that is completed over a specific period of time.

WEEE:  Acronym for Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive. The WEEE is concerned with any product that is run or operated by electricity or batteries.  It limits the use of certain specific hazardous substances in the manufacturing of these products.